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Remnants of a wall in Canopus, filmed after the removal of 270 cm of sand.

“沉没的文明”

Following traces of legend and history

 

坎诺普斯古城曾出现在很多经典文学作品中,为教会神父们所传诵。有关坎诺普斯的最早记载出现在公元前 6 世纪上半叶梭伦 (Solon) 的一首诗中。据诗人尼坎德(Nicander,公元前 2 世纪)说,墨奈劳斯 (Menelaus) 的舵手坎诺普斯 (Canopus) 在桑尼斯沙滩上被毒蛇咬伤,命丧于此。因此,这附近的城市便以这个不幸的水手的名字命名:坎诺普斯。在最后一个法老王朝和托勒密时期,坎诺普斯以欧西里斯和塞拉皮斯神庙而闻名。世界各地的朝圣者都到这里来寻求奇迹疗愈。

赫拉克利翁的赫拉克勒斯神殿未被摧毁时,人们会把欧西里斯神像放在他的三桅大帆船上驶向他在坎诺普斯的神庙。这一游行成为连接两座相邻城市的神秘纽带。罗马时代的文学作品对坎诺普斯奢华无度的宴会进行了批判,但却为它吸引来了许多游客。罗马皇帝哈德良为了纪念他在坎诺普斯度过的美妙时光,甚至在罗马城外的哈德良别墅 (Villa Hadriana) 仿照坎诺普斯局部修建了一座迷你小镇。基督教圣像破坏者摧毁神庙后,在原地修建了一座大修道院。它因保存着圣约翰和圣西里尔的遗体而闻名。这些先圣遗体赋予修道院与先前的欧西里斯和塞拉皮斯异教神庙相同的奇迹疗愈力量,因此仍有朝圣者来此地朝拜。

坎诺普斯东郊地区遭遇了与桑尼斯-赫拉克利翁相同的命运:大海把这些地方连同曾经的繁华一并埋葬。

Parts of the Naos of the Decades, a black granite shrine that dates to the 4th century BC. It was made in the reign of Nectanebo I (380-362 BC) and dedicated to Shu, god of the air and the winds. The inscriptions proved to be of great importance for under
The Naos of the Decades, a black granite shrine that dates to the 4th century BC. It was made in the reign of Nectanebo I (380-362 BC) and dedicated to Shu, god of the air and the winds. The inscriptions proved to be of great importance for understanding
Marble head of the god Serapis, 2nd century BC, (H 59 cm, l cm) discovered on the site of the temple dedicated to this god, A creation of the Ptolemaic period, this god was associated with Isis and took over some of the functions of Osiris. The cult grew
Golden coins dating from the Byzantine (7th century AD) and Islamic (8th Century AD) periods, found at Canopus.
Animal footprints preserved on the site of Canopus after removal of 2.5 m of sand.
Archaeologists measuring the numerous granite columns excavated at Canopus.
Portrait of a pharaoh, Quartzite, 25th dynasty (712-661 BC presenting the characteristic traits of the statuary of the 25th so-called Ethiopian Dynasty (8th century BC).
Limestone blocks of a wall. Photograph taken after removing 2.7 m of sand.
Head of a diorite statue representing a pharaoh of the 26th (Saite) dynasty (664-525 BC).
The expedition team using airbags to raise heavy artefacts like this granite sphinx from the seabottom. Once on the surface, they are lifted on deck of the support ship by crane.
Raising from the sea an over life-size black diorite statue of stunning sculptural quality, probably representing Arsinoë II, She is dressed as the goddess Isis with the knot on the right shoulder clasping the fine linen tunic, a ceremonial dress of the
A diver holding a slightly over life-sized marble head of the god Sarapis dating from the 2nd century AD and found at Canopus.
This over life-size black diorite statue of a stunning sculptural quality probably represents Arsinoë II, dressed as the goddess Isis with the knot on the right shoulder clasping the fine linen tunic, a ceremonial dress of the Ptolemaic queens.
Osiris-Canopus, marble, 1st-2nd century AD.
A Byzantine gold ring from Canopus is mounted with a tiny oil lamp, the band is decorated with an undulating garland.

发现

在现代化的阿布基尔港以东 2 公里处,IEASM 发现了一处存留大量考古遗迹的区域,有些与 Toussoun 王子在 1933 年的发现相吻合。该遗迹由一排长 150 米的废墟构成。遍地都是红色花岗岩石柱碎片、石灰岩砌块和其他建筑结构。IEASM 在探险过程中发现了大量文物,包括珠宝、十字架、货币和拜占庭时期的印章等。在这些建筑结构的北侧,约 2 米深的海沙底下是保存完好的墙基,全长 103 米。这说明这面墙是一座庙宇的围墙,从围墙的长度来看,可能是迄今为止在该地区发现的最大的一座埃及神殿。

他们还在这里发现了雕刻着象形文字的花岗岩石块。这些被证实是著名的独石礼拜堂“Naos of the Decades” 的一部分,另一部分已于 1933 年被 Toussoun 王子在同一水域发现。在该区域出土的雕像碎片中,最惹人注目的是一尊大理石雕刻的塞拉皮斯神像头部,年代可追溯到托勒密时期。

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