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东方号

1798 年 8 月 1 日,停泊在埃及海岸的法国将军拿破仑·波拿巴的舰队,被英国海军上将纳尔逊指挥的舰队奇袭。这场近距离的、戏剧性的交战在当今被称为尼罗河口海战。法国舰队残骸的初步调查和发掘工作是由 Jacques Dumas 在 1983 年发起的,在他去世 13 年后,又由 Franck Goddio 在与埃及最高文物委员会的合作下恢复。

Franck Goddio 最重要的工作成果是绘制了详细的阿布基尔湾水下地图,再现了战役事件的发生顺序,并展示了战舰的位置和双方的战术。根据这些地图提供的信息,水下考古学家进行了广泛的电子调查和数百次的潜水。

不仅发现了舰队最大的战舰,也就是总吨位高达 2700 吨,并拥有 120 门大炮的拿破仑的旗舰“东方号”,还发现了法国护卫舰 Serieuse 号和 Artemise 号。Serieuse 号是舰队最小的船,它在拼命抵抗英国舰队时沉没。Artemise 号则因弹尽粮绝,最终被船员抛弃并放火烧毁,以防英国人缴获。东方号后来在战役最激烈时爆炸。

图片

An archaeological diver is approaching a 36-pounder cannon on the excavation site of Napoleon Bonaparte's fleet.
A bronze carronade, the smallest gun on a ship, was located on the upper deck of the Orient.
Gold coins uncovered during the excavation of the Orient. The number of pre-revolutionary coins found, including the ones bearing likeness to the French kings Louis XV and Louis XVI, attest to the toll the Revolution was taking on France's economy: The go
Just 100 metres from the remains of the Orient are the shaft and ring of the Tonnant's main anchor, one of seven found in the immediate area. As the Orient threatened to turn into a fireball, the captains of the other French ships ordered their anchors to
Franck Goddio and his team are studying the excavation map of the Orient.
The 11 metres long rudder of the Orient.
Two 36 pound cannons. This cannon was the largest on bord the Orient and required 15 men to operate. Preparations for each shot took 8 minutes. The massive iron cannons were termed according to the weight of the cannonballs they could handle, not the weig
An archaeological diver is inspecting the bottom part of an old bedwarmer out of copper. Those were once heated with coal.
This ladle may have come from the pharmacy or the kitchen of the Orient.
A nail from the Orient's rudder.
Down in the bowels of the Orient, one of four bilge pump holes near the main mast remarkably still bears some of the rope wrapping used to make the pump waterproof.
Archaeological divers use waterproof drawing tools to sketch the site for later review by experts. The locational grid lines help the team identify the exact location of artifacts.
Air-filled lift bags won't raise this iron cannon, a 36-pounder, straight to the surface. Rather, the buoys help move heavy artifacts off the floor and into position for lifting by cranes stationed on the expedition boat.
A diver brings a spyglass discovered on the Orient to the surface. Such optical equipment was employed to sight land and other ships.
The discovered artefacts are temporarily stored in water basins on board the expedition boat.

在细致分析船的残骸以及它们在 0.5 平方公里区域内的分布方式之后,拼凑出来了令人惊讶的新证据,揭示了有关东方号沉没的更多信息。通过对文物分散的方式以及船体残骸的研究,Franck Goddio 得出了这艘巨大船舰沉没的原因:和之前推测的不同,它不是被一次,而是两次几乎同时发生的爆炸摧毁的。

从东方号周围发现的舰队不同船只的七个船锚,为确定法国船只在战斗中的位置提供了一些详细信息。这些船只削断了缆绳、丢弃了船锚,以使自己从燃烧的东方号不可避免的爆炸中逃脱。此外还发现了大炮、携带的枪支弹药,以及一些日常物品。它们提供了船员在船上日常生活的信息。还有一些人骨也被挖掘出来。其中最惊人的发现是东方号上印刷机使用的上千个铅字。拿破仑在战役中使用新闻媒体对他的消息进行最有效的传播。

大量的法国金、银、铜币被发现,其中一些可以追溯到路易十四时代,一些可以追溯到路易十五时代,而大部分则属于路易十六时代。最奇怪的是,还有来自马耳他、奥斯曼帝国、威尼斯、西班牙和葡萄牙的金币。这些更加让人意想不到的金币应该是拿破仑在前往埃及途中夺取的马耳他宝藏的一部分。

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