[go to navigation] [go to content]

Ancient Trade Routes

Section of the hull of the Santa Cruz junk. One compartment has been already excavated the other one is still untouched.
A jar from Vietnam and celadon bowls from the kilns of Longquan discovered on the wreck of the Santa Cruz.
A blue and white porcelain kendi. It is differentiated from ewers and other water containers by the shape of its spout and neck. Its function was to enable the user to drink the liquid flowing out from the spout without the spout coming in contact with th
Porcelain plates and bowls are stacked in piles on the Santa Cruz wreck.
At the top of the compartment between two bulkheads are lying Siamese small jars from the region of Sawankalok. The partition between two bulb-keels can be observed in the foreground.

“圣克鲁斯号”帆船

背景

 

中国和东南亚之间的贸易在 15 世纪上半叶(明朝)达到顶峰,那时中国的统治者们都在积极地扩张领土。然而到了 15 世纪中叶之后,中国开始闭关锁国,禁止私人海外贸易。尽管走私要冒着被判死刑的危险,但非法贸易仍然兴旺发展。“圣克鲁斯号”帆船就是在这一时期沉没的。

发现

 

“圣克鲁斯号”帆船的发现纯属意外。2001 年 4 月,一群渔民在用炸鱼时发现渔网里有一些陶瓷碎片,然后便开始潜水寻找宝藏。由于缺乏潜水经验,有好几个渔民为此葬身海底或受伤。当地古玩店中开始出现一些特殊的历史文物,引起了菲律宾国家博物馆的注意。他们决定与 Franck Goddio 及其团队合作,尽快对这艘沉船进行考古发掘,以停止个人盗窃文物和对沉船的破坏。

The Santa Cruz wreck is one of the best preserved junks ever found. The cargo includes porcelain or ceramic of excellent quality and in perfect condition, such as writing cases made of porcelain.
Due to the extent of the preservation of the Santa Cruz junk, the archaeologists have been able to understand how the ship was loaded and what kind of goods were stored in its different parts and compartments.

这艘沉船是迄今为止发现的保存最完好的中式帆船之一,船体的重要部分仍然完好无损。船长 25 米,宽 5.8 米。他们对残存的船体结构进行了深入研究。最有趣的研究结果之一是,有明确的证据表明,这艘船在菲律宾建造——对大量残骸样本进行的木材鉴定也证实了这一点。由于船体保存良好,考古学家们还解开了当时如何装船以及不同船体部分和隔间用来储存哪些货物等谜题。

考古团队历时两个半月,进行了无数次的潜水,打捞出约 15,000 件明朝弘治年间的文物,并对船体结构进行了研究。有 11,500 件货物为保存完好的优质瓷器或陶器,其中不乏一些极其罕见的文物,如鸳鸯造型的砚滴、瓷质拍纸簿等。

“圣克鲁斯号”不仅为我们解答了 15 世纪的船只如何装货这一问题,其沉没的地点还证实了当时的确存在一条不寻常的贸易路线,在此之前研究人员一直无法确认。另外,这证明当时菲律宾北部的居民过着富裕的生活,足以购买最精致的瓷器。这推翻了考古学家们先前的推测——菲律宾的这一地区只能消费廉价的陶器,无力购买更昂贵的物品。

所有文物发掘完毕后,他们会在“圣克鲁斯号”上覆盖泥沙,以防止其继续被破坏。

欲了解更多信息,请登录欧洲水下考古研究所 (IEASM) 网站。

点击此处查阅出版物

Detailed view of a small blue and white porcelain vase.
Section of the hull of the Santa Cruz junk. The foremost compartment has been already excavated and can be seen empty; the middle one is still untouched; the one in the background is under excavation.
An archaeologist is excavating a compartment of the hold, with a cargo of jars from Vietnam.
Between two bulkheads of the junk, still uncovered can be seen a pile of porcelain dishes and several jars. The partition between two bulb-keels can be observed in the foreground.
Rows of blue and white porcelain bowls are neatly stacked in the hull of the Santa Cruz junk.