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Ancient Trade Routes

The tumulus of the Lena junk lay at a depth of 48 metres.
Rows of blue and white porcelain bowls from the cargo of the Lena junk.
Sea life amidst the cargo of the sunken Lena junk.
An archaeologist is taking inventory of small jars from Vietnam. Once cleaned they will reveal a flower design. These jars were very popular in Asian sea trade.
Rows of blue and white porcelain bowls and plates from the Lena junk.

“里纳礁 (Lena Shoal)”

背景

 

“里纳号”帆船沉没于 1490 年左右,即明朝弘治皇帝的统治时期。15 世纪,中国航海家的身影遍布东半球的各大洋。这些野心勃勃的商人不仅把他们的商品卖到东南亚,还将贸易一路扩张到了遥远的中东地区和非洲。1405 年,永乐大帝派遣著名的“宝船舰队”拉开了航海探险的帷幕,这支舰队前后共进行了七次伟大的航海探险。

“里纳号”的目的地到现在仍是一个不解之谜。可以想象,这艘船在装满瓷器(有的出自景德镇、龙泉和广东瓷窑)以及青铜觥、手镯、煎锅和铁锭等其他各类商品后,从浙江或福建港口起航。

随后,船驶向华南地区,从那里装上各种类型的罐子,然后继续向暹罗港口航行,购买各窑出品的陶器。“里纳号”还可能达到过马来半岛和苏门答腊岛,从那里购买了锡锭和铜器。沉船上发现的暹罗商品表明,这艘船是沿着中国边界的沿海航线航行,最终目的地是马六甲,从那里把货物出口到中东地区。因此,在巴拉望的东北部发现这艘沉船是十分令人惊讶的,这里距离暹罗港口或马六甲海峡近 2,000 海里(3,700 公里)。

Video

Piles of porcelain bowls were found in their original position on the Lena Shoal wreck site. They had been packed in tubular fashion, stacked one upon the other in similar shapes, regardless of surface design.

发现

 

或许这批货物原本是要运往菲律宾群岛的各个穆斯林苏丹国、婆罗洲或摩鹿加群岛的某一个岛屿?从船上的货物可以推测,当时可能发生了意外情况,也许是恶劣的天气,使这艘船偏离了正常的航线。

1997 年,Franck Goddio 与菲律宾国家博物馆合作,在 48 米的深海中发现了“里纳号”。它在菲律宾的布桑加岛附近触礁沉没,这片海域约有 7,000 个海岛、海礁和沙洲。最浅处的暗礁距离水面只有 7 米。而根据这艘船的大小来看,当时的吃水深度可能不超过 2.5 米,最多 3 米。这说明该船可能遇到了一场暴风雨,暴风雨在水中形成了一些深海槽,导致船体侧面撞上礁石。

欲了解更多信息,请登录欧洲水下考古研究所 (IEASM) 网站。

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Pictures

Porcelain dishes in blue and white appear after the sediment has been removed from the wreck of the Lena junk.
Piles of blue and white porcelain bowls and plates from the Lena Junk.
Archaeological divers carefully excavate the Lena junk in 48 metres depth.
Among the cargo of the Lena junk were piles of porcelain bowls, jars and small porcelain bottles with globular bodies. The bottles have a lid pierced with holes. They were most certainly used as water bottles, with the filter acting as protection against
The remnants of the Lena wreck are cleared from sediment with the help of a water dredge.